Since the emergence of management science, its evolution as an independent discipline is not a strict sequence of some basic stages, but the development of a number of approaches that partially coincided in time. In addition, the development of each of them and the theory of management in general took place in a broader social and general scientific context.
Therefore, the emerging management theory was influenced by the changes taking place in the world - new scientific and technological advances, changes in attitudes towards business, successes in other management-related disciplines - such as sociology, psychology, economics, engineering sciences, etc.
Although this diagram simplifies the real complexity of the process under consideration, it is advisable to take it as a basis. However, it must be supplemented, since the general evolution of management science cannot be understood without its connections, for example, with the "sociological school", with industrial psychology, etc.
School of Scientific Management (1885-1920). Its emergence, as noted, was a key event, thanks to which the science of management acquired not only independence, but also wide public recognition. Its most famous representatives, along with F. Taylor, were F. Gilbreth, L. Gilbreth, G. Gant, G. Emerson and others. It is significant that F. Tagilor and F. Gilbreth began their careers as workers, and then became engineers ; the sphere of their direct activity was production.
Therefore, their first step in the scientific analysis of labor and management was not the study of administrative, managerial tasks, but the study of the very content of labor, its main components. And only then the representatives of this school come to the key conclusion about the need to separate management functions from the actual performance of work; those. to the conclusion that management is a special specialty, and the science about it is an independent discipline. The general goal - to increase labor productivity - can be, according to the views of this school, achieved in three main ways: through the study of the very content of performing labor - its operations, conditions, regime, as well as the rationalization of labor movements.
This alone led to striking results for that time (for example, the productivity of elementary manual labor increased by 280%; the administration's expenses for the production of 1 ton of raw materials decreased 24 times); on the basis of an effective system of control over individual and collective labor and, above all, on the basis of an effective system of incentives and regulation of the labor process (for example, by abolishing the “leveling”); on the basis of determining the optimal management system of the enterprise as a whole, which would ensure the highest end results of the work of the entire organization. For example, they increased significantly when the power of the foreman was decentralized, and instead of one foreman, eight supervisors began to work in the shop.
Thus, since its inception, the science of management is inextricably linked with the analysis of labor activity as a whole. Moreover, it was largely the result of the objective development of scientific methods for analyzing the content and conditions of labor activity. Thanks to her, it was clearly and convincingly shown that the goal - increasing productivity - can be achieved not only by improving production, technology, but also by better organization of labor (both individual and joint).